Vehicle charges from a standard Nema 5-15 110V electrical socket via electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) which plugs into the vehicles on-board J1772 charge port – EVSE comes supplied with the vehicle. 110V alternating current (AC) power is then converted by the on-board charger (OBC) into direct current (DC) power which feeds the rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) via orange wire harness. All high voltage wiring on the motorcycle is easily identifiable as it is orange in color. RESS is composed of lithium-ion cells and a battery management unit (BMU) which employs a safety interlock system called high voltage interlock loop (HVIL). The BMU’s job is to keep all the cells balanced correctly and manage power input/output, close/open high voltage contactors as well as fast charge contactors. Contactors turn the power ON/OFF inside the battery pack, while fast charge contactors allow for DC fast charge to be absorbed by the RESS. DC high voltage (HV) flows from the RESS through a shielded orange wiring harness to the left of the electric vehicle power train (EVPT), from where it is converted into AC by the EVPT inverter which feeds the AC permanent magnet motor. The motor then turns electricity into forward propulsion. While the vehicle is coasting down, the EVPT turns into a “charger” through the method of regenerative braking while slowing down. During this time, the inverter turns AC power into DC power and feeds the energy generated from coasting/braking into the RESS.
When the motorcycle is plugged into a DC fast charging station, it is fed DC power directly into the RESS. DC charging bypasses the on-board charger and can provide higher charge speeds as it doesn’t rely on the on-board charger for conversion of AC to DC. LiveWire uses a combined charging system (CCS) inlet on the charge port to allow for DC fast charging. Two orange-colored high voltage wiring harnesses are running from the charge port straight into the RESS.
The high voltage Interlock loop is a low voltage protection circuit that verifies all high voltage component connectors are securely connected. The BMU sends a low voltage signal through all component connections and senses if the signal returns through the Interlock Loop. If the signal does not return, then the high voltage system is disabled.